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Table 1 List of candidate serum markers for pediatric osteosarcoma and their possible clinical utility.

From: Serum tumor markers in pediatric osteosarcoma: a summary review

Serum marker Observation for pediatric osteosarcoma Assessed clinical utility for pediatric osteosarcoma References
Free polyamines POS development is accompanied by disorders of polyamine metabolism spurring their intensive release from cells into biological fluids Informative indicator of a malignant process in POS Ladanyi et al [35]
IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 IGF-1/IGFBP-3 levels correlate with the presence of metastatic disease, histologic response, event-free survival Promising predictive factor of development or clinical characteristics of POS Rodriguez-Galindo et al [36]
anti-ki57 antibody Increased levels anti-ki57 antibody associated with extent of biological activity of tumor and clinical course of POS Prognostic factor for POS progression Petrosyan et al [37]
TNF-β and sTNF-R In high-grade POS, high levels of TNF-β correlated with bad response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy Marker for monitoring of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in POS Holzer et al [38]
ANG Expression of ANG correlates with an increase in local density of blood vessels in tumor tissue, with development of pulmonary metastasis and poor prognosis Diagnostic and prognostic factor of primary POS Kushlinskii et al [52]
Bone formation/resorption Decreased production of PICP, OC, ICTP associated with bone metabolism in POS Risk factor for pathologic bone fractures in POS Gajewska et al [40]
T3 Increased levels T3 associated with poor/good disease-free survival Marker of good and poor POS prognosis Sidorenko et al [42]
CD44 No significant difference was observed between serum CD44 levels of children with sarcoma and healthy children Serum CD44 levels were not found to be of value in diagnosis or prognosis for POS Kebudi et al [43]
VEGF Increased VEGF levels correlates with tumor stage and disease-free survival Prognostic factor in POS Koznetsova et al [85]
SAA Increased SAA levels associated with type of tumor and high-risk POS development Differentiates malignant bone cancer from benign bone tumors and detects POS in high-risk children Krizkova et al [44]
BALP Increased BALP levels associated with development of POS Marker for late detecting, monitoring, and assessment of the efficacy of therapy in POS Ambroszkiewicz et al [17]
CXC chemokines Increased CXCL4, CXCL6, and CXCL12 levels associated with poor disease-free survival Prognostic factor for POS outcomes Li et al [50]
IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α Analysis of cytokine concentration showed large statistically significant differences between POS and control group for IL-4 and IL-8 Markers for individual reaction of organism to the development of POS Markiewicz et al [24]